Ultima modifica:

Port of Newcastle and Break Free 2016 blockade, Australia

Break Free 2016 blockade of world's largest coal export port in Newcastle, Australia, stops ships for a day and highlights impacts of global warming, particularly sea level rise on Pacific Island Nations.


New South Wales is one of the world’s major coal exporters and the port of Newcastle is the world’s largest coal export port. The port was privatised through a 98-year lease for $1.75 billion from the NSW government to Port of Newcastle Investments, comprising Hastings Funds Management and China Merchants Group (NSW Government, Treasury Department). Anti-coal campaigners in Australia contest its primary use as the world biggest coal export hub. On 8 May 2016, anti-coal activists gathered at the port and Sandgate Bridge railway line as part of the global “Break Free from Fossil Fuels” actions, #BreakFree16. 1,500 activists gathered in Newcastle and hundreds kayaked into the shipping channel to block coal ships from entering and leaving the harbour; while around 70 protesters at Sandgate Bridge blocked a coal train in a day of civil disobedience (Davidson 2016). In addition to the blockade, protesters climbed vessels and infrastructure, abseiled and hung banners calling for politicians to “Make Coal History”. It was reported that 66 people were arrested including 57 people at Sandgate (Code and Marchese 2016) and the events of the day have been recorded on the Break Free Australia website: https://australia.breakfree2016.org/.

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Port of Newcastle and Break Free 2016 blockade, Australia
State or province:New South Wales
Location of conflict:Newcastle
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Coal extraction and processing
Ports and airport projects
Specific commodities:Coal
Project Details and Actors
Project details

New South Wales is one of the world’s major coal exporters and the port of Newcastle is the world’s largest coal export port. The port was privatised through a 98-year lease for $1.75 billion from the NSW government to Port of Newcastle Investments, comprising Hastings Funds Management and China Merchants Group (NSW Government, Treasury Department)

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Project area:792 hectares
Type of populationUrban
Start of the conflict:08/05/2016
End of the conflict:08/05/2016
Company names or state enterprises:Port of Newcastle from Australia - Owner of the Port of Newcastle where the Break Free 2016 protest and blockade was held
Relevant government actors:New South Wales Government Department of Industry, Resources and Energy
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:- Breakfree 2016, https://breakfree2016.org/
- Greenpeace, http://www.greenpeace.org/australia/en/
- 350.org
- First Nations peoples
- Climate Angels, https://climacts.org.au/tag/climate-angels/
- The Greens political party, http://greens.org.au/
- Climate Action Network, http://www.climatenetwork.org/
- Friends of the Earth, http://www.foei.org/
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stageMobilization for reparations once impacts have been felt
Groups mobilizing:Indigenous groups or traditional communities
International ejos
Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Forms of mobilization:Blockades
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Media based activism/alternative media
Public campaigns
Occupation of buildings/public spaces
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Global warming
Health ImpactsVisible: Other Health impacts
Other Health impactsAustralia is already experiencing the impacts of global warming through extreme weather events, particularly heatwaves, and the frequency and intensity of wildfire, both of which have caused deaths. "Other Health impacts" has been selected as the continuation of coal exports exacerbates the potential for these events.
Socio-economical ImpactsPotential: Other socio-economic impacts
Other socio-economic impactsThe entrenchment of the coal industry in the Australian economy, which perpetuates the industry at the expense of a transition to renewable energy and continues contributing to greenhouse gas emissions, and therefore global warming and climate change.
Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Coal exports are carrying on uninterrupted.
Development of alternatives:Environmental organisations advocate for a rapid transition to renewable energy, the winding back of coal mine, and the cessation of any new coal mines.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:Not Sure
Briefly explain:The action was successful at raising awareness of the impacts of coal, including on Pacific Island Nations, and it successfully stopped shipping of coal for the day. The timing was important given that it was the commencement of the 2016 Federal election campaign. However, the struggle to transition from coal will be a long one in Australia, as evidenced by the re-election of the Liberal Party, which is committed to coal and is hampering the transition to renewable energy.
Sources & Materials
References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

Franks, D. M., Brereton, D., and Moran, C. J., (2010), “Managing the cumulative impacts of coal mining on regional communities and environments in Australia”, Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 28:4, 299-312

Links to general newspaper articles, blogs or other websites

Break Free Australia, (2016), Break Free Australia website, [online], https://australia.breakfree2016.org/, [accessed 23 October 2016]
[click to view]

Connell, T., Carr, M., and Kirkwood, I., (2016), “Newcastle harbour coal blockade: live updates | photos, video”, [online], Newcastle Herald website, http://www.theherald.com.au/story/3894106/newcastle-harbour-coal-blockade/, [accessed 23 October 2016]
[click to view]

New South Wales Government, (2016), “Coal in NSW”, [online], Department of Industry, Resources and Energy website, http://www.resourcesandenergy.nsw.gov.au/investors/investment-opportunities/coal/coal, [accessed 23 October 2016]
[click to view]

New South Wales Minerals Council, (2013), “NSW mining history”, [online], New South Wales Minerals Council NSW Mining website, http://www.nswmining.com.au/industry/nsw-mining-history, [accessed 23 October 2016]
[click to view]

Port of Newcastle (a), (2014), “About the Port”, [online], Port of Newcastle website, http://www.portofnewcastle.com.au/Company-Information/About-the-Port.aspx, [accessed 23 October 2016]
[click to view]

Port of Newcastle (b), (2014), “Company Information”, [online], Port of Newcastle website, http://www.portofnewcastle.com.au/Company-Information/, [accessed 23 October 2016]
[click to view]

New South Wales Government, Treasury Department, "Long-term Lease of the Port of Newcastle. Frequently Asked Questions", http://www.treasury.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/123659/FAQs_-_Long-term_Lease_of_the_Port_of_Newcastle.pdf
[click to view]

Connell, T., (2016), “Island canoes in Newcastle climate protest”, [online], Newcastle Herald website, http://www.theherald.com.au/story/3890505/paddling-against-coal-tide-video-poll/?cs=305, [accessed 23 October 2016]
[click to view]

Davidson, H., (2016), “Dozens arrested as anti-fossil fuel protesters join Australian coal blockade”, [online], The Guardian website, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/may/08/hundreds-of-anti-fossil-fuel-protesters-join-australian-coal-blockade, [accessed 23 October 2016]
[click to view]

Code, B., and Marchese, D., (2016), “Protesters descend on Newcastle as flotilla attempts to stop coal exports”, [online], ABC News website, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-05-08/newcastle-anti-coal-break-free-flotilla-protest/7394154, [accessed 23 October 2016]
[click to view]

Related media links to videos, campaigns, social network

Video: May 8 - Newcastle Break Free from Fossil Fuels Blockade. https://australia.breakfree2016.org/
[click to view]

Meta information
Contributor:Australian Environmental Justice Project, Lisa de Kleyn, PhD Candidate, RMIT University, [email protected], https://www.foe.org.au/australian-environmental-justice-project
Last update25/10/2016
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